HistoryOpinion

The spymaster who supported a counter-revolution

Philippe d’Auvergne’s life was that of a great adventurer. In his life, he rose through the ranks of the Royal Navy, saw service in the American Revolution, earned the confidence of an ageing duke, led the defence of his homeland against the barbarity of the French Revolution, funded the royalist cause, and marched with his contingent at the Battle of Waterloo. His is a life that is…
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The end of the House of Bonaparte

In order to know how a story ends, it is indispensable to understand the essence of how it began. The years leading up to the French Revolution were tumultuous. Deep in a financial crisis, King Louis XVI and his advisors attempted to implement a taxation system, which was…