Downton Abbey is, without doubt, one of the most consistently popular TV shows produced in recent times. The show, which gives a look at the life of the Crawleys, a fictional aristocratic family who run and own the Downton estate. Set in the early 1900s, the show gives a fairly accurate idea of life for the aristocracy at this time and the changes that the first world war brought to the United Kingdom’s formerly rigid class system.
One thing that’s key to the show yet is not widely understood by many are the titles used by members of the family. And that’s what I aim to explain in this article.
At the head of the family is Lord Grantham, who’s name is Robert Crawley (played by Hugh Bonneville). He is the original title holder and the titles of the rest of the Crawley family exist because he holds this title (we’ll get onto why very shortly). Lord Grantham is in fact the short form of his title, the proper title is The Earl of Grantham, though in Britain Barons, Viscounts, Earls and Marquesses can be referred to as Lord X instead of by their full title – this is why you may have heard him called Lord Grantham and the Earl of Grantham throughout the show.
Robert Crawley is addressed as Lord Grantham by equals and as Your Lordship or Mi’Lord by servants. It would be incorrect to refer to him as Lord Robert, however.
Lord Grantham’s wife, Cora Crawley (played by Elizabeth McGovern) is known as Lady Grantham. Her proper title is The Countess of Grantham and she, like Lord Grantham, can be addressed as Lady Grantham by equals and Mi’Lady by servants. Like with Lord Grantham, her title of Countess of Grantham is often abbreviated to Lady Grantham, the same as for all other Baronesses, Viscountesses, Countesses and Marchionesses. It would, however, be incorrect to refer to Lady Grantham as Lady Cora.
There is also Violet Crawley (played by Maggie Smith) who is Lord Grantham’s mother and the wife of the previous Lord Grantham. Her full title is The Dowager Countess of Grantham and is also referred to as simple Lady Grantham. Addressed by servants as Your Ladyship or Mi’Lady and equals as simply Lady Grantham.
Next we have the two living daughters of the Earl and Countess of Grantham, Mary Crawley and Edith Crawley. As both are the daughters of an Earl, they use the title ‘Lady’ in front of their names. This is the case for all daughters of Earls, Marquesses and Dukes, formally their titles are The Lady Mary Crawley and The Lady Edith Crawley, addressed normally as Lady Mary and Lady Edith and by servants as Your Ladyship or Mi’Lady.
Interestingly, if Lord Grantham had a son, he would go by the title of Lord Downton (fully as Viscount Downton) because Lord Grantham also holds this as what’s called a ‘subsidiary title’ which is like a secondary, lesser title. The eldest son of a titled person (peer) usually uses his father’s second highest title as his own.
Any other sons would be styled as ‘The Honourable’ before their first name.
Downton Abbey is on our screens on Christmas Day in the UK for the Christmas special.
If you have any questions relating to the titles used on Downton Abbey, leave them in the comments box below.
Photo Credit: ITV Pictures
The two living daughters have to be addressed normally as Lady Mary and Lady Edith and by servants as Mi’Lady and not as you said: Your Ladyship, because that is only for the countess and dowager countess.
This was wonderful and very enjoyable. Thanks also to Hans for the helpful comment.
I have a question: under what circumstances is it correct to address someone with the title Lord/Lady and his/her first name? (Thinking here of Lady Diana Spencer and others.) Was that a correct form of address?
Younger sons of Dukes and Marquesses are the only people that should be addressed as Lord [First Name] and daughters of Earls, Marquesses and Dukes should be addressed as Lady [First Name].
Diana, Princess of Wales was the daughter of an Earl so, prior to her marriage, was addressed as ‘Lady Diana Spencer’.
Thank you so much! I’ll consider this tidbit an early Christmas gift.
Thank you and all at Royal Central for the entertainment and education. Best wishes to you in the coming year.
In a bit of a confusing adjunct to this, when the wife has no title of her own, the wife of a younger son is addressed as Lady (first name of husband). So if you hear a woman addressed as “Lady Roger” or “Lady George” that is not her name or title, but the name of her husband (Thank you Dorothy Sayers, for that one).
Oops! I have asked for all seasons of Downton Abbey for Christmas, but I have seen the second season, where there were THREE daughters of Lord and Lady Grantham. Did we lose one along the way?
It’s in series 3, I won’t ruin it for you.
Have we ever heard Lady Grantham refer to the Dowager by any name? Does Cora call her mother in law “Violet?” And what is Thomas calling all is in-laws these days?
Thomas is the footman. Tom is the Grantham’s son in law, Lady Sibyl’s widower. I think he still addresses them by their formal names but I intend to pay particular attention from now on.
Cora refers to Violet as Mama pronounced in the English manner.
I would like an explanation of the names used for the servants both at Downton and in Scotland.
Ms. Jenny, Hope you are doing well.
When the servants are at the home of their Lord/Lady, the servants are addressed by their own surname, (e.g. Mr. Bates). When they travel to another household with their Lord/Lady, the servants are addressed using the title of their Lord/Lady, (e.g., Mr. Bates would be addressed as Mr. Grantham).
Hope this helps. Take care.
Hi James & Royal Central: Could you please explain when the serverants should be addressed by their first name or surename? For example, Tom Branson was “Brandon” before he got married, then he was “Tom” after he married Lady C, then once he became the agent of the estate, Violet/Lady G said they can finally call him Branson again…. or when Anna (maid) became a lady’s maid….. they asked if it’s OK to keep calling her Anna instead of Bates.I am so confused.Thank you for your time and help.All the best,Shirley
Dear Shirley, Hope you are doing well and had a great holiday season.
My understanding is that the lower-ranking staff are addressed by the first name, (e.g., Daisy) and higher-ranking staff who are responsible for their area, (e.g., Mr. Carson in in charge of footmen so on, Ms. Hughes in charge of maids, and Ms. Patmore in charge of the cooks) or who work directly for the family, (e.g., Mr. Bates) or maybe sometimes I guess it could be some more familiar with some staff, (e.g., Anna starting off lower on the ladder and then moving up to waiting on a member of the family).
That is my understanding.
I don’t know any of this for certain but this is what I believe to be the case. The family refer to the housekeeper and cook as Mrs and their family name regardless if they were ever married or not. I don’t know why this is so but it is the tradition. For the most part, any of the staff that the family has routine contact with such as the butler, valet, footmen, chauffeur and lady’s maids are called by their family name only. No Mr/Mrs or Miss. The lower ranking staff usually have minimum contact with the family on a regular basis and are often supposed to keep out of the family’s eyesight. The family would call them by their first name if it were known to them or perhaps nothing at all.
The staff among themselves follow a hierarchy depending on their position in the household and their personal relationship with each other. In the case of Downton Abbey, the butler, housekeeper and Cook are Mr and Mrs accordingly and are called by all staff as such as well as among themselves. The junior staff are called by their first names by all. The more senior staff are referred to as Mr/Miss or Mrs and sometimes by their first names if there is a more personal relationship between them. There doesn’t always appear to be a firm rule among this group except in the way they address the butler, housekeeper and cook and vice versa.
When Tom Branson was the chauffeur the family called him Branson. They then called him Tom when he became part of the family although the dowager did so reluctantly. When he became the estate agent he was an employee again and she said they could call him Branson again.
I don’t remember Anna’s position prior to her being a lady’s maid but she was known to the family and staff as Anna and they appeared to wish to continue to call her Anna after she became a lady’s maid if there was not any objection. I am not sure how common it was for a married woman to be in service and if the fact of being married had any impact on how they were addressed.
Dear Sir or Ma’am, Hope you are doing well.
Anyone who does not know that Dowager refers to a widow might like a more complete explanation.
Thank you in advance. Take care.
Good point, I’ve highlighted your comment so everyone can see
Hello, Excuse me, I know this isn’t relevant to Downtown Abbey, but hypothetically, if one was to buy the title ‘Lord and Lady of the Manor of…’ and this person had four daughters, what would their daughters be called? Or would only one daughter inherit the title?
The family of a Lord of the Manor have no courtesy titles, so their daughters would remain ‘as is’ – a Lordship of the Manor can be left to anyone and is transferred just like any other type of property and can be left in a will.
Hope this helps.
Why is the family’s last name Crawley if that is Lord Grantham’s mother’s last name? Was it tradition back then to use the women’s last name? I understand that they are called Lord and Lady Grantham, I just don’t understand why they go by Violet’s last name.
Also, you only mention two daughters. What about Sybil?
Crawley is the family’s surname, Grantham is their title. Peers typically use their title as a surname when they need one though legally their surname would remain as their family name.
Sadly, Sybil died giving birth to their daughter.
“Grantham” would likely have been the name of an estate or county or shire or some other territory given to some man named “Crawley” a few hundred years earlier. If it is Earl of (name) (Earl of Avon, Earl of Oxford) it is almost always a place. If it is Earl (name) (Earl Attlee, Earl Jellicoe) then it is the last name of the person granted the title.
A peer may be addressed as My Lord or Your Lordship or Sir. A peeress may be addressed as Your Ladyship or Madam. My Lady is *never* correct, although unfortunately the courts of justice seem to require it when addressing a female judge of senior rank.
A courtesy title doesn’t mean the holder is a peer. The Earl of Grantham is a peer and the eldest son of the Earl of Grantham would be styled Viscount Downton, however the Viscount Downton wouldn’t be a peer as he is using the title by right of his father, who actually is the title holder.
At risk of being labelled a pedant, I would say that Downton Abbey is not set in the “early 1900s”, but in the early twentieth century, as the early 1900s would take us to 1905, and the current series is set in the early 1920s.
I like british title system. I studied in the UK. However I do not feel easy with the title lord because the word lord is associated with the All mighty God. However I like the titles of earl countess baron baroness sir lady. I am a Canadian and I wish Canada will re-introduce some of the titles.
What is the grandson called? He is the son of the late heir, Matthew Crawley, distant cousin to Lord Grantham, and Lady Mary. Would he be Viscount Downton?
On a related note, is there any change to Lady Mary’s address due to her being the widow of the late heir (Matthew Crawley) or the mother of the current heir?
I still don’t understand where the name Grantham comes from.
Well, the county’s name is Grantham so, obviously, the Robert is Lord of Grantham.
*Robert is the… sorry for the mistake.
I also wondered this as I live in a town called grantham where Margret thatcher was born and wondered if there was a connection with the town
My understanding is that the family name is Grantham and that Lady Mary married Matthew Crawley. Please clarify.
Does anyone know the name of Lady Violet’s late husband?
Being American, I fear I have a rather limited understanding of the British system regarding the bestowing of titles. Robert Crawley is an Earl, his wife is a Countess, and his mother is the Dowager Countess. Should something happen to Robert, the title would pass to George making Cora the Dowager Countess. Can there be two people holding that title simultaneously? And what about Mary? She will never hold the title of Countess of Grantham, so what would her title be?
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